Major Events Pre-1950

Independence Day 1947, Delhi

R C Mody

R C Mody is a postgraduate in Economics and a Certificated Associate of the Indian Institute of Bankers. He studied at Raj Rishi College (Alwar), Agra College (Agra), and Forman Christian College (Lahore). For over 35 years, he worked for the Reserve Bank of India, where he headed several all-India departments, and was also Principal of the Staff College. Now 82 years old, he is busy in social work, reading, writing, and travelling. He lives in New Delhi with his wife. His email address is This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

India would be independent one day. This was the fond hope, in fact a dream, with which most Indians of my generation grew up. But this dream kept on eluding us.

Read more: Independence Day 1947, Delhi

Forced to leave Okara, Pakistan (Part 1)

Anand Sarup

Born in Lahore on 5th January, 1930, to Savitri Devi and Shanti Sarup and brought up in an open environment, without any mental conditioning by a denominational commitment. He imbibed a deep commitment to democracy and freedom because his family participated actively in the freedom struggle. In 1947, together with his family, he went through the trauma of losing all, and then participating in rebuilding a new status and identity. He Joined the IAS in 1954 and retired in 1988 as Education Secretary, Government of India. Later, he became Chairman, National Book Trust. Also co-authored, with Sulabha Brahme, Planning for the Millions.

Editor’s note: This is Part 1 of a three-part story. Part 2 describes the the family’s move to India, while Part 3 is the story of their rehabilitation in Ludhiana.

I do not know the date. One evening in early 1947, when our family went up to the roof, we found the sky lighted with a huge fire in the direction of the walled city of Lahore.

Read more: Forced to leave Okara, Pakistan (Part 1)

From Okara to Ludhiana (Part 2) by Anand Sarup

Anand Sarup

Born in Lahore on 5th January, 1930, to Savitri Devi and Shanti Sarup and brought up in an open environment, without any mental conditioning by a denominational commitment. He imbibed a deep commitment to democracy and freedom because his family participated actively in the freedom struggle. In 1947, together with his family, he went through the trauma of losing all, and then participating in rebuilding a new status and identity. He Joined the IAS in 1954 and retired in 1988 as Education Secretary, Government of India. Later, he became Chairman, National Book Trust. Also co-authored, with Sulabha Brahme, Planning for the Millions.

Editor’s note: This is Part 2 of a three-part story. Part 1 describes the the family’s decision to leave Pakistan,while Part 3 is the story of their rehabilitation in Ludhiana.

Was it the 10th or 11th of September 1947? I am not sure.

Read more: From Okara to Ludhiana (Part 2) by Anand Sarup

Rehabilitation in Ludhiana (Part 3) by Anand Sarup

Anand Sarup

Born in Lahore on 5th January, 1930, to Savitri Devi and Shanti Sarup and brought up in an open environment, without any mental conditioning by a denominational commitment. He imbibed a deep commitment to democracy and freedom because his family participated actively in the freedom struggle. In 1947, together with his family, he went through the trauma of losing all, and then participating in rebuilding a new status and identity. He Joined the IAS in 1954 and retired in 1988 as Education Secretary, Government of India. Later, he became Chairman, National Book Trust. Also co-authored, with Sulabha Brahme, Planning for the Millions.

Editor’s note: This is Part 3 of a three-part story. Part 1 describes the family’s decision to leave Pakistan, and Part 2 deals with the family’s move to India.

After being driven out of Pakistan in September 1947, by February 1948, we had settled into some kind of a routine in an ill-equipped house on Hazoori Road, Ludhiana.

Read more: Rehabilitation in Ludhiana (Part 3) by Anand Sarup

From Meghiana to Hoshiarpur, 1947 by Pran Bhatla

Pran Bhatla

Pran graduated in civil engineering from IIT, Kharagpur. After serving in the Indian Defence Service of Engineers for some years, he joined the firm Stein, Doshi and Bhalla, and retired as their Chief of Projects. He is now a freelance consultant.

Editor's note: Mr. M. P. V. Shenoi has written this story, based on conversations with his friend, Pran Bhatla.

I was 11 years old only when India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. I am not sure whether it was 14th August (Pakistan) or 15th August (India) because we were in West Punjab, which became a part of Pakistan, but moved soon after to India.

Read more: From Meghiana to Hoshiarpur, 1947 by Pran Bhatla